in order to establish a state of the art, to strengthen the thought and to be able to find tracks toward human factor integration in working systems design, the objectives of this WG are the following:
-make a point on the advances of this approach in various industries and federate concepts and methods
-make commmon use of present "good practises" in this field (participative ergonomy, activity simulation,design of working helps..) and check their impact on health/safety at work;
-propose practical details for knowledge transfert to industrial actors
Increased automation of industrial systems induced a desequilibrium between the various components of these systems, namely by giving preponderance of technical knowledge against other human and social knowledges. The analysis of industrial situations often shows a discrepancy between theoretical predicted reliability and observed operational reliability. This discrepancy between expected operation and actual operation (taking into account vagaries management, operation constraints, extension of equipment use life, the changes of production system ...) is considered as a major cause of "risk taken" . In fact the operator/user has too face either an unexpected situation after design phase, or a design phased induced situation.
In order to obtain the expected performances and to improve prevention, it is crucial to take human factors into account as early as in the design phase. Design and performance obtention has long been an engineer business, nowadays it is urgent to go beyond that purely technical dimension .
To that end, research works have flourished, they can can be organized following four axes:
Dans ce sens, une éclosion des travaux de recherches voit aujourd’hui le jour et on peut les organiser autour de 4 axes :
- Method and product design process
- Design and usage learning: designer activity and design activity analysis, analysis of user activity;
- Design of work situations : Work activity, collective work , interfaces and interactions, organization , working tools: procedures, rules, prescribed tasks, aso...
- Design of systems clean, safe and sure: design and safety model, Standards, implicit rules
However many questions are pending:
1) How to reconsider design at various levels to better take into account health/safety/ergonomy?
2) To what extent present design methods include available operational data (for instance ergonomic analysis, field experience...)?
Include human activity as soon as design phase implies to anticipate most of the events leading possibly to a damage for man (accident, illness), thus reducing technical performances. The task is complex, inasmuch as at the design stage, technical subsystems, human activity and work situations have no physical reality.